Author: Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Is Changing a Hoist Brake Considered a Modification?

Is Changing a Hoist Brake Considered a Modification?

hoist brakeRod, a Canadian crane services manager and recent safety webinar attendee, asked:

“Is changing a hoist brake a modification?

Tom Reardon, Columbus McKinnon training instructor, responds to this hoist brake question:

Changing a hoist holding brake is not a modification simply because the brake is being replaced.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines modification as: “a change in something (such as a system or style).”

If we replace a holding brake on a hoist and it is original equipment from the manufacturer of the brake we are replacing and it is identical to the brake we are replacing, this replacement is not a modification. We have not changed the form, fit, function, size, system or style.

If we replace the original brake with a brake that will lend the same characteristics as the old or removed brake but is a different size, shape, bolt pattern, or is not according to the original equipment manufacturer’s specifications, it would be considered a modification.

Want to learn more? View our Safety Webinar on “ASME Safety Standards Top 10 FAQs.”

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Recommendations for Skewing Issues on an Overhead Crane

Recommendations for Skewing Issues on an Overhead Crane

Daniel, a salesperson for a Columbus McKinnon Channel Partner and recent safety webinar attendee, asks:

“On my overhead crane, the rail to flange contact is opposite end-to-end of the end truck. On one end truck, the drive wheel to the flange is on the inside and on the other wheel, the contact is on the outside. What are your recommendations for dealing with these skewing issues in this situation?”

skewing issues

Tom Reardon, Columbus McKinnon Technical Instructor and Safety Webinar Presenter, answers this question on skewing issues:

I gather from the question the crane is traveling in an orientation similar to the above example. This situation is not commonly caused by the runway. It is most often related to the crane.

If the crane is an A1 “type” drive configuration (see graphic below) some of the possible causes are:

  • Drive shaft couplings are defective/sloppy/loose
  • Weight/load is being carried at one extreme or the other on the bridge (trolley to the left or right of bridge)
  • Crane bridge is out of square
  • End trucks are bent or warped
  • Drive wheels are not “truly parallel.” This means the perpendicular center line of the left side drive wheel is not the same line as the perpendicular center line of the right side drive wheel.
  • Drive wheel diameters are not matched within CMAA Specification #70

If the crane is an A4 “type” drive configuration some of the possible causes are:

  • Weight/load is being carried at one extreme or the other on the bridge (trolley to the left or right of bridge)
  • Crane bridge is out of square
  • End trucks are bent or warped
  • Drive wheels are not “truly parallel.” This means the perpendicular center line of the left side drive wheel is not the same line as the perpendicular center line of the right side drive wheel
  • Drive wheel diameters are not matched within CMAA Specification #70
  • Bridge drive motors are not producing same output speed, starting torque, etc.

skewing issues

 

In case you missed our Safety Webinar “Identifying Tracking Problems with Cranes,” you can view it here.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Does your Overhead Crane Meet OSHA Regulations?

Does your Overhead Crane Meet OSHA Regulations?

Jason, an Assistant Manager with one of our Channel Partners, asks:

“I received a call from a customer for whom I had conducted an inspection. The customer stated they received an OSHA reprimand for not having monthly inspections on their cranes. They have 2 top-running bridge underhung trolley-type cranes. OSHA referenced 1910.179 J2IV and 1910.179 B1 as the violations.

In the book I have, 1910.179 B1 states that ‘this section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semi gantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and the others having the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes are grouped together because they all have trolleys and similar travel characteristics.’

Are the references for the reprimand accurate?”

Tom answers:

Some confusion exists among crane and hoist owners, users and service providers regarding crane configurations and the application of Federal OSHA 1910.179 regulations. Some of this confusion may be caused by the first definition in 1910.179 – (a)(1):A “crane” is a machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally…”  Because all overhead crane configurations fit this definition to one degree or another, we tend to lump them together and assume that all are subject to these regulations.  This is not the case. I wrote an article on the subject entitled “Does OSHA 1910.179 apply?” To read the full article, go here.

A second resource I want to share with you consists of two OSHA interpretations:

Interpretation #1: Click here
Interpretation #2: Click here

Each interpretation makes it quite clear that OSHA 1910.179 does not apply to the crane types you describe. For OSHA to prevail on a General Duty Clause, which they have not cited, they would have to prove or establish risk of serious injury or death. If the operators are doing proper daily pre-operational inspections, or even inspections once per month, they are covered. These “Frequent Inspections” do not have to be documented. (ASME B30.17 & B30.16.)

ASME B30.16 covers the underhung hoist and the “hoist chains” cited in 1910.179(j)(iv). In short, OSHA doesn’t apply.

Below are some additional resources related to this topic:

Disclaimer:
This blog post is Tom Reardon’s opinion of the interpretation of the relevant sections of OSHA. The reader should seek a legal opinion.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

The Newest Chapter of ASME B30.11: What You Need to Know

The Newest Chapter of ASME B30.11: What You Need to Know

ASME B30.11 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard, B30.11 has another chapter.  Revised in 2010, the most apparent change is the addition of Chapter 11-4, “Maintenance Training and Maintenance.”

ASME B30.11-4.1 states:

Maintenance training shall be provided to promote proficient adjustments, repairs, and replacements on crane and monorail systems….”

This added chapter includes requirements for not only underhung crane and monorail maintenance training, but for certification as an underhung crane and monorail maintenance person.  Certification is required for all persons who maintain and/or service monorails and underhung cranes. Are you and your underhung crane and monorail maintenance personnel trained and certified?

If your answer is “no” and you are interested in becoming certified, here are some classes that may interest you:

CMCO Chain Hoist Technician Certification
CMCO Wire Rope Hoist Technician Certification
CMCO Overhead Crane & Hoist Inspection Certification
Overhead Crane and Hoist Frequent/Monthly inspection

For additional reference, check our other ASME blog post:  The Latest ASME Updates

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Q & A: Are there Any Special Load Test Requirements for a 50 Ton Crane?

Q & A: Are there Any Special Load Test Requirements for a 50 Ton Crane?

 Q-&-A-chat

Kyle asks the following question about load testing:

A  company I work with conducts a special lift twice a year where they lift 100,000 lbs. with a 50 Ton crane.  Are there any special requirements as far as load testing, inspections or OSHA requirements that need to be considered when doing this lift?  If so, could we get them in writing?

Tom answers:

Since 100,000 lbs. is 50 Tons, and the capacity of their crane is 50 tons, nothing special is required. They can legally do this all day long as many times as they want (within the CMAA Class of the crane).

On the other hand, if a crane owner wants to lift a load that exceeds the rated capacity of the crane, that owner may do so twice in a 12 month period.  ASME B30 standards refer to this as a “Planned Engineered Lift.”   The requirements can be found in the appropriate ASME B30 Standard, Section three (3). Please review and follow the standards as published.

To summarize, the following conditions must be met:

1.  Review the service/maintenance history of the crane.

2.  A Periodic Inspection must be conducted just prior to the lift and immediately following the lift.

3.  This type of lift is restricted to powered cranes and hoists rated at 5 tons or greater.

4.  The load shall not exceed 125% of the rated load of the crane or hoist.

5.  This event is limited to twice in a twelve-month period.

6.  A written report, documenting all aspects of the event, must be  placed on file. Documentation is very important and needs to be emphasized.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Should a Warning Device be Continuously on When the Bridge Crane is Traveling?

Should a Warning Device be Continuously on When the Bridge Crane is Traveling?

warning deviceGene, a CMCO distributor salesperson, writes:

“I am not seeing eye to eye with my customer on a bridge crane alarm issue. His claim is that the warning device must be an alarm (sound) and that it should be continuously on when the bridge is traveling.  The standard he is referencing is ANSI B30.2 (1967) with the claim that it is incorporated by reference into law.

I have found numerous references myself to other standards regarding the requirement for a warning device. Where is the standard that permits a strobe? Where do you find the statement that makes ASME as the controlling entity? Thanks for your help!”

Tom Reardon, CMCO technical instructor, replies:

For the short answer, please skip to the bottom of the page.
For the long, detailed answer, please read on:

To start out let’s determine if the crane in question is top running or underhung.   If any load-bearing member of a crane or monorail travels on an internal or external lower flange or equivalent it does not fall within the purview of OSHA 1910.179.  The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration has issued several interpretations stating as much.  One such interpretation was issued to Mr. Thomas Hagerty, on March 4, 1991 in response to his question: Does this standard apply to under-hung cranes, hoists, and monorails?  OSHA’s reply was, “This standard does not apply to under-hung cranes, overhead hoists, or monorails.  Under-hung cranes and monorails are covered in ANSI B30.11-1980, a National Consensus Standard.”

ASME B30.11 states the requirement for a warning device but does not specify what type or how it should be used.
ASME B30.11 SECTION 11-1.11 WARNING DEVICES: “On cab- and remote-operated cranes or carriers, an audible or visual warning means shall be provided.”
ASME B30.11 is a consensus standard. It does not have the power of law.  It may be used by OSHA to support a General Duty Clause violation, (5)(a)(1) to “demonstrate that a hazard and abatement options are recognized by industry.”

OSHA 1910.179 applies only if both the crane bridge and trolley are top running.
Paragraph 1910.179(b)(2) states, “All new overhead and gantry cranes constructed and installed on or after August 31, 1971 shall meet the design specifications of ANSI B30.2 (1967).”  OSHA became law on August 31, 1971, for overhead and gantry cranes.  Your distributor is correct in that OSHA 1910.179 “incorporates by reference”  in CFR 29 1910.6,  the B30.2 – 1967 standard.

OSHA 1910.179 does address the requirement for a warning device.  This requirement is vague at best.  “1910.179(i) Warning device; except for floor-operated cranes a gong or other effective warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism.”  (Note: Floor Operated Cranes are defined as Pendant Operated)

While I do not have access to the 1967 version of ASME / ANSI B30.2 1967, it is highly unlikely the standards have become less restrictive or less protective since 1967.  The current ASME B30.2 – 2005 states the following requirements:

SECTION 2-1.15: WARNING DEVICES OR MEANS FOR A CRANE WITH A POWER TRAVELING MECHANISM

2-1.15.1 Cab- and Remote-Operated Cranes
(a) A warning device shall be provided.
(b) Refer to para. 2-3.1.7(e) for operation of the device.

2-1.15.2 Floor-Operated Cranes
(a) A warning device should be provided for installations where the ability of the operator to warn persons in the  path of the load is impaired.

2-1.15.3 Types of Devices
One or more of the following devices shall be provided when required:
(a) manually operated gong
(b) power-operated bell, siren, or horn
(c)  rotating beacon
(d) strobe

2-3.1.7 Conduct of Operators
(e) The operator shall activate the warning device on cab- and remote-operated cranes and, when provided, on floor-operated cranes
(1) before starting the bridge or trolley motion of the crane,
(2) intermittently during travel of the crane when approaching persons in the path of the load.

So… after a very long summary of the supporting standards and documentation, the answers to your questions are:

Question 1 – The allowance for the strobe is covered in ASME B30.2-1.15.3(d) above.

Question 2 – ASME is not law. ASME has no enforcement authority.  BUT  if the crane is not a top running bridge and top running trolley, only ASME B30.11 or 17  is applicable.

In closing:  (A) The alarm does not need to run continuously and has been proven to be less effective if it does.  (B) It also does not have to be a siren or audible device.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

How Much is Enough when it Comes to Annual Inspection

How Much is Enough when it Comes to Annual Inspection

Q-&-A-chat_15A

Bill writes:

I keep running into the question “How do we complete the annual PM (preventative maintenance) per the manual unless we open up the gear box and inspect the internals?”  This question is centered around the annual inspection task to inspect “Load Bearing Parts.” 

Item 3 on the annual inspection of a CEW Hoist states: LOAD BEARING PARTS:  CHECK FOR WORN, CRACKED OR DISTORTED PARTS, SUCH AS SUSPENSION HOUSINGS, OUTRIGGERS, CLEVISES, YOKES, HOOK BLOCKS, SUSPENSION BOLTS, SHAFTS, LOCKING DEVICES AND BEARINGS ON HOIST (ALSO ON TROLLEY, IF SO EQUIPPED)

Some crane millwrights feel that to complete this task they need to open up the gearbox and inspect the gears and shafts within the gearbox.  How does Yale interpret this task?  Is there a time frequency when Yale would recommend inspection of the internals of the gearbox?

inspection tagTom answers:

We encounter this question frequently while conducting our inspection and maintenance training classes.

The ASME B30.16 defines load bearing / load suspension parts as follows; “the load suspension parts of the hoist are the means of suspension (hook or lug), the structure or housing that supports the drum or load sprocket, the drum or load sprocket, the rope or load chain, the sheaves or sprockets, and the load block or hook.”

Brakes, load and holding, gearing, motors, etc. are mechanical parts. They are part of the drive train.

ASME B30.16-2.1.3(b) states, “Covers and other items normally supplied to allow inspection of components should be opened or removed.”

In Table 2 of ASME B30.16, required inspection items are prefaced with “Evidence of.” 

There are several indirect ways of checking for and detecting (finding “evidence of”) excessive wear or abnormal operation of internal parts. If gearbox oil is not degraded, there are no metallic particles attached to the drain plug, the hoist raises and lowers properly (with and without a load), and there are no strange or abnormal sounds from the gearbox, it is unlikely that serious problems exist. If this inspection causes suspicion, refer to ASME B30.16-2.1.3(c)A designated person shall determine whether conditions found during inspection constitute a hazard and whether disassembly is required.”

I hope this answers your questions.  We cover this topic and many others in our Inspection and Crane & Hoist maintenance schools.  Please visit the CMCO Training website for more information.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

How do you calculate the stopping distance of a bridge crane?

How do you calculate the stopping distance of a bridge crane?

CRANE Power Mast Abraham writes:

“How do you calculate the stopping distance of a bridge crane to see if you meet the OSHA standards? I need help determining if our bridge cranes are traveling too far after we release the travel button on the remote control.“

Tom answers:

Both OSHA 1910.179 and ASME B30 publish standards which address bridge and trolley brakes with regard to stopping distance.  Below are some OSHA and ASME guidelines:

  • OSHA 1910.179 (f)(4)(vii)  Brakes for stopping the motion of the trolley or bridge shall be sufficient size to stop the trolley or bridge within a distance in feet equal to 10 % of full load speed in feet per minute when traveling at full speed with full load.
  • ASME B30.2-1.12.3 (a)(1) brakes should have torque capability to stop trolley/bridge travel within a distance in feet equal to 10% of rated load speed when traveling with a rated load.

OSHA and ASME specify “rated load speed.”  This speed is set by the crane manufacturer and can be found in the specifications section of the manuals supplied with the crane.  If not specified, you may use one of the following procedures:

  • One option is to determine 10% of the distance in feet. Put a full load on your crane and traverse the bridge or trolley at full speed for one minute. Mark the distance.  Most trolleys will run out of room long before one minute passes.  Take 10 percent (10%) of that distance. This would be the maximum “drift” distance allowed after putting the controls in the off or neutral position with the crane traveling at full speed with a full load. This approach is what many people try to do. It can be tedious. 
  • A better option might be to determine 10% of a minute. The standard states “10% of full load speed in feet per minute.“  6 seconds is 10% of a minute.  When traveling at full speed with a full load the bridge or trolley should stop within 6 seconds after going to the neutral or off position.  With less than a rated load, the bridge or trolley will drift shorter distances/less than 6 seconds.
Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.