Tag: ASME B30 Safety Standards

OSHA update: Facts about Current Sling Regulations

OSHA update: Facts about Current Sling Regulations

February 19, 2015  Today, we are posting updates to this blog article on sling regulations originally posted in 2011. This article continues to be one of our most visited, and we feel it our duty to keep this very important safety information up to date.

sling regulationssling regulations

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has the following regulations for slings:

  • 1910.184 (general industry)
  • 1915.122
  • 1915.113
  • 1915.118 (for shipyard employment)
  • 1926.251 (construction)

Effective June 8, 2011, all slings, chain, synthetic & wire rope, are required to have identification tags/labels permanently attached to them. This sling regulation applies to slings sold and used in the United States.

Historically, companies did not require wire rope slings to have permanently affixed identification tags/labels on them; it was not required per OSHA 1910.184. This has since changed. Tags/labels are now required.

Also, original load capacity tables found in the OSHA standards were based on information found in ASME B30.9 dating back to 1971.  New tables reflect the current industry standards for working load limits for slings, chain, and synthetic or wire rope.

Changes include:

  • All load charts for slings have been updated to current industry standards.
  • All slings, regardless if made of chain, wire rope or synthetic, must be marked with a tag/label. Now only properly tagged/labeled slings can be used.
  • Slings with detached tags/labels must be removed from service until new tags/labels can be permanently reattached.

To view the OSHA changes made in 2011 in its entirety or to download a copy click here.

For information on rigging training, please click here

Henry Brozyna

Henry Brozyna is a Corporate Trainer specializing in Rigging & Load Securement for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Can hoist hooks be repaired?

Can hoist hooks be repaired?

LodestarHook During my training sessions, I am frequently asked if hoist hooks can be repaired if they are damaged or broken. OSHA and ASME regulations provide specific requirements for hoist hook repair to help answer this question.

According to OSHA 1910.179 (L)(3)(iii)(A), hook repairs by welding or reshaping are not generally recommended. If such repairs are attempted they shall be done under competent supervision and the hook shall be load tested before further use.

While OSHA 1910.179 specifically pertains to a crane with top-running girders and top-running trolleys, it states that hook repair is allowed under certain conditions.

On the other hand, ASME B-30.10 Section 10-1.3 (d) states that “attachments, such as handles, latch supports, etc. shall not be welded to a finished hook in field applications. If welding of an attachment such as these is required, it shall be done in manufacturing or fabrication prior to any required final heat treatment.”

So the question remains, can hoist hooks be repaired?

Typically hoist hooks are forgings processed from hot-rolled alloy steel blanks of medium carbon content, such as grade AISI 4140. Hooks can be used in the “as forged” condition or further enhanced by thermal processing (heat treatment). Although fatigue strength improves with heat treatment, there is a resulting loss of ductility and elongation.

A repair that involves welding or any kind of heat treatment can affect the strength and ratings of a hook and therefore is not recommended.

Keep in mind, when a hook is damaged or broken, it can be an indicator that the hoist was overloaded, in which case the entire unit should be inspected for other damages.

In addition to referencing OSHA and ANSI requirements for hook repair, we also recommend that you always contact the manufacturer before making any questionable repairs on their products.

For more information on this topic, check out our Pre-operational Hoist Inspection video.

Further your education on crane and hoist operation and inspection. Check out these upcoming training courses from Columbus McKinnon:

Overhead Crane and Hoist Inspection Certification
CMCO Chain/Wire Rope Hoist Technician Certification

What other hoist or rigging questions do you have?

Perry Bishop

Perry Bishop is a Technical Trainer for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Missing Chain Sling ID Tags: Who Is To Blame?

Missing Chain Sling ID Tags: Who Is To Blame?

missing chain sling ID tagsJason asks:

Who is responsible for putting tags on chain slings?  Can I retag my chain slings with missing tags?  Do I have to load test a sling after I retag it?

Peter answers:

It is the sling manufacturer’s responsibility.  The sling manufacturer is a person or company assembling or fabricating sling components into their final form.  The sling manufacturer and the manufacturer of the sling materials may or may not be identical.  An end user who buys components and assembles them mechanically is the sling manufacturer. If the user does not know who the sling manufacturer is because the old tag fell off and went missing, then a decision needs to be made.  It is the user’s or rigger’s responsibility to maintain the tag and be sure it remains legible.  A rigger can not use a sling without a tag or when a tag is illegible or missing information.

Replacing missing chain sling ID tags becomes a question of competency.

Can the user properly inspect and retag the sling? For retagging, the user would need to start his own serial number for documentation purposes.  In doing so, this user would become the “sling manufacturer.” This can only be done if the user is properly trained and deemed competent.  Per OSHA,  a person who tags a sling must be a competent person designated by the employer.  ASME B30.9 states: replacement of the sling identification shall be considered a repair.  Slings shall be repaired only by the sling manufacturer or a qualified person. A repair shall be marked to identify the repairing agency. To be considered competent and or qualified, the user should have some inspection experience and complete a rigging gear inspection course from a reputable training organization.

If the user feels they are not competent to properly inspect and retag the sling, they would need to send the sling out to a rigging house with a competent person for inspection and retagging.  That rigging house now becomes the “sling manufacturer.”  Tags must have information per OSHA 1910.184(e) Alloy steel chain slings.  I have noted the key points below referencing both OSHA and ASME standards:

missing chain sling ID tags

OSHA 1910.184(e)(1) Sling Identification
Alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and reach.

ASME B30.9:  SECTION 9-1.7: Sling Identification
9-1.7.1 Identification Requirements

Each sling shall be marked to show:
(a) name or trademark of the manufacturer
(b) grade
(c) nominal chain size
(d) number of legs
(e) rated loads for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based
(f) length (reach).

A load test is not required if a sling is made up of individual load tested components from the component manufacturer. If the sling is always found in acceptable condition per ASME B30.9, OSHA 1910.184 and manufacturers’ recommendations, then the sling can remain in service without ever needing another load test performed.

Interested in getting trained? Learn more about our upcoming training classes.

Peter Cooke

Peter Cooke is a former Training Manager for Columbus McKinnon Corporation, having specialized in Rigging & Load Securement.

Hook Tip Loading is Risky Business

Hook Tip Loading is Risky Business






Hook tip loading is a common problem. While reading through one of our catalogs, Brian ran across our instructions and asked the following question,  “What does it mean to never insert a hook tip?”

Peter answers:

Hooks typically do not fit into an eyebolt or they don’t seat properly in the saddle of the hook.  This can cause side loading and weaken the strength of the eyebolt.  Inserting a hook directly into the eye of the bolt often results in “Tip Loading.”   A “tip load” would be any load on a hook that is not entirely or wholly seated in the saddle of the hook.  Tip loading subjects the hook to an overload and is never acceptable. It is recommended that a shackle be used to connect a hook to any eyebolt to prevent any unnecessary stress. Please see the below illustration for the correct procedure.

Never insert a hook tip_rev1 copy

For additional reference, please review the ASME B30.10 Hooks  and B30.26 Rigging Hardware safety.

Peter Cooke

Peter Cooke is a former Training Manager for Columbus McKinnon Corporation, having specialized in Rigging & Load Securement.

The Newest Chapter of ASME B30.11: What You Need to Know

The Newest Chapter of ASME B30.11: What You Need to Know

ASME B30.11 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard, B30.11 has another chapter.  Revised in 2010, the most apparent change is the addition of Chapter 11-4, “Maintenance Training and Maintenance.”

ASME B30.11-4.1 states:

Maintenance training shall be provided to promote proficient adjustments, repairs, and replacements on crane and monorail systems….”

This added chapter includes requirements for not only underhung crane and monorail maintenance training, but for certification as an underhung crane and monorail maintenance person.  Certification is required for all persons who maintain and/or service monorails and underhung cranes. Are you and your underhung crane and monorail maintenance personnel trained and certified?

If your answer is “no” and you are interested in becoming certified, here are some classes that may interest you:

CMCO Chain Hoist Technician Certification
CMCO Wire Rope Hoist Technician Certification
CMCO Overhead Crane & Hoist Inspection Certification
Overhead Crane and Hoist Frequent/Monthly inspection

For additional reference, check our other ASME blog post:  The Latest ASME Updates

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

Q & A: Are there Any Special Load Test Requirements for a 50 Ton Crane?

Q & A: Are there Any Special Load Test Requirements for a 50 Ton Crane?


Kyle asks the following question about load testing:

A  company I work with conducts a special lift twice a year where they lift 100,000 lbs. with a 50 Ton crane.  Are there any special requirements as far as load testing, inspections or OSHA requirements that need to be considered when doing this lift?  If so, could we get them in writing?

Tom answers:

Since 100,000 lbs. is 50 Tons, and the capacity of their crane is 50 tons, nothing special is required. They can legally do this all day long as many times as they want (within the CMAA Class of the crane).

On the other hand, if a crane owner wants to lift a load that exceeds the rated capacity of the crane, that owner may do so twice in a 12 month period.  ASME B30 standards refer to this as a “Planned Engineered Lift.”   The requirements can be found in the appropriate ASME B30 Standard, Section three (3). Please review and follow the standards as published.

To summarize, the following conditions must be met:

1.  Review the service/maintenance history of the crane.

2.  A Periodic Inspection must be conducted just prior to the lift and immediately following the lift.

3.  This type of lift is restricted to powered cranes and hoists rated at 5 tons or greater.

4.  The load shall not exceed 125% of the rated load of the crane or hoist.

5.  This event is limited to twice in a twelve-month period.

6.  A written report, documenting all aspects of the event, must be  placed on file. Documentation is very important and needs to be emphasized.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.

ICHC Presenter to Answer Audience Questions

ICHC Presenter to Answer Audience Questions

TomReardon_rev1 MCM Events welcomes another speaker at the jointly held Crane & Rigging Conference and Industrial Crane & Hoist Conference at the Hampton Inn Hotel & Suites New Orleans-Convention Center, New Orleans, La. The conferences will take place May 23-24, 2012. Tom Reardon, Training Manager, Hoists and Cranes, for Columbus McKinnon Corporation, will provide an overview of OSHA 1910.179, as well as explore crane configurations, regulations, and standards for the industry.
“Many of us have experienced the concern prompted by crane inspection reports listing discrepancies as OSHA violations. Not all of these reports are accurate,” says Reardon. “Some confusion exists among crane and hoist owners, users, and service providers regarding crane configurations and the application of OSHA 1910.179 regulations.”

Reardon is inviting industry stakeholders to submit questions regarding standards and regulations, to which he will source answers from ASME/ANSI, OSHA, CMAA, etc., and share them with delegates at the end of his presentation.

Do you have a question you would like answered? Take part in this survey.


Our Answer to this week’s post: What is wrong with this picture?

Our Answer to this week’s post: What is wrong with this picture?

This photo and explanation have been provided by our guest blogger, Lou Collobert, from Independent Electric. Lou is a CMCO Certified Hoist Repair Technician. 

Thank you everyone for your comments!  Here is the answer to our challenge question:

  • The trolley or carrier has been modified to accommodate the hoist’s suspension hook. This is an alteration of the Original Equipment Manufacturer’s design.
  • The modified “suspension plate” is severely worn at the contact point with the hoist’s suspension hook.

This modification is likely not in compliance with ASME B30.11-1.3.4, regarding welding standards and qualifications or ASME B30.11-1.3.5, which addresses modifications of under hung cranes and monorails.

Because the wear of the “suspension plate” is so severe, this would likely be cited under the OSHA General Duty Clause, Section 5 (a)(1).  

In this case, the customer decided that repair of the trolley was not feasible and replaced the unit with a new one.   This is another example of why it is important that crane and hoist owners, operators and maintenance personnel are fully aware of the standards as they apply to equipment modifications and workplace safety.

Thank you, Lou, for submitting our challenge question and answer!

Want to test your luck with some of our other challenge questions? Check out these listed below:

Maintenance Challenge
Application Challenge
Rigging Challenge

Should a Warning Device be Continuously on When the Bridge Crane is Traveling?

Should a Warning Device be Continuously on When the Bridge Crane is Traveling?

warning deviceGene, a CMCO distributor salesperson, writes:

“I am not seeing eye to eye with my customer on a bridge crane alarm issue. His claim is that the warning device must be an alarm (sound) and that it should be continuously on when the bridge is traveling.  The standard he is referencing is ANSI B30.2 (1967) with the claim that it is incorporated by reference into law.

I have found numerous references myself to other standards regarding the requirement for a warning device. Where is the standard that permits a strobe? Where do you find the statement that makes ASME as the controlling entity? Thanks for your help!”

Tom Reardon, CMCO technical instructor, replies:

For the short answer, please skip to the bottom of the page.
For the long, detailed answer, please read on:

To start out let’s determine if the crane in question is top running or underhung.   If any load-bearing member of a crane or monorail travels on an internal or external lower flange or equivalent it does not fall within the purview of OSHA 1910.179.  The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration has issued several interpretations stating as much.  One such interpretation was issued to Mr. Thomas Hagerty, on March 4, 1991 in response to his question: Does this standard apply to under-hung cranes, hoists, and monorails?  OSHA’s reply was, “This standard does not apply to under-hung cranes, overhead hoists, or monorails.  Under-hung cranes and monorails are covered in ANSI B30.11-1980, a National Consensus Standard.”

ASME B30.11 states the requirement for a warning device but does not specify what type or how it should be used.
ASME B30.11 SECTION 11-1.11 WARNING DEVICES: “On cab- and remote-operated cranes or carriers, an audible or visual warning means shall be provided.”
ASME B30.11 is a consensus standard. It does not have the power of law.  It may be used by OSHA to support a General Duty Clause violation, (5)(a)(1) to “demonstrate that a hazard and abatement options are recognized by industry.”

OSHA 1910.179 applies only if both the crane bridge and trolley are top running.
Paragraph 1910.179(b)(2) states, “All new overhead and gantry cranes constructed and installed on or after August 31, 1971 shall meet the design specifications of ANSI B30.2 (1967).”  OSHA became law on August 31, 1971, for overhead and gantry cranes.  Your distributor is correct in that OSHA 1910.179 “incorporates by reference”  in CFR 29 1910.6,  the B30.2 – 1967 standard.

OSHA 1910.179 does address the requirement for a warning device.  This requirement is vague at best.  “1910.179(i) Warning device; except for floor-operated cranes a gong or other effective warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism.”  (Note: Floor Operated Cranes are defined as Pendant Operated)

While I do not have access to the 1967 version of ASME / ANSI B30.2 1967, it is highly unlikely the standards have become less restrictive or less protective since 1967.  The current ASME B30.2 – 2005 states the following requirements:


2-1.15.1 Cab- and Remote-Operated Cranes
(a) A warning device shall be provided.
(b) Refer to para. 2-3.1.7(e) for operation of the device.

2-1.15.2 Floor-Operated Cranes
(a) A warning device should be provided for installations where the ability of the operator to warn persons in the  path of the load is impaired.

2-1.15.3 Types of Devices
One or more of the following devices shall be provided when required:
(a) manually operated gong
(b) power-operated bell, siren, or horn
(c)  rotating beacon
(d) strobe

2-3.1.7 Conduct of Operators
(e) The operator shall activate the warning device on cab- and remote-operated cranes and, when provided, on floor-operated cranes
(1) before starting the bridge or trolley motion of the crane,
(2) intermittently during travel of the crane when approaching persons in the path of the load.

So… after a very long summary of the supporting standards and documentation, the answers to your questions are:

Question 1 – The allowance for the strobe is covered in ASME B30.2-1.15.3(d) above.

Question 2 – ASME is not law. ASME has no enforcement authority.  BUT  if the crane is not a top running bridge and top running trolley, only ASME B30.11 or 17  is applicable.

In closing:  (A) The alarm does not need to run continuously and has been proven to be less effective if it does.  (B) It also does not have to be a siren or audible device.

Tom Reardon

Tom Reardon is a Technical Instructor specializing in Hoists & Overhead Cranes for Columbus McKinnon Corporation.